Federative Republic of Brazil

República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)
Coat of arms
Motto: "Ordem e Progresso"
(in Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
Anthem: Hino Nacional Brasileiro
(in Portuguese)
"Brazilian National Anthem"
National seal
Selo Nacional do Brasil
Largest citySão Paulo
Recognised regional languagesGuarani • Tucano • Nheengatu • Italian • Baniwa • Macushi • Xerénte • German • Wapishana
Official language
and national language
Other languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
47.73% White
43.13% Brown (Multiracial)
7.61% Black
1.09% Asian
0.43% Amerindian
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Jair Bolsonaro (PSL)[2]
Hamilton Mourão
Rodrigo Maia (DEM)
Davi Alcolumbre (DEM)
Dias Toffoli
LegislatureNational Congress
Federal Senate
Chamber of Deputies
• Declared
7 September 1822
29 August 1825
• Republic
15 November 1889
• Current constitution
5 October 1988
• Total
8,514,877 km2 (3,287,612 sq mi) (5th)
• Water (%)
• 2016 census
205,823,665 [3] (5th)
• Density
23.6/km2 (61.1/sq mi) (182nd)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$3.081 trillion[4]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate
• Total
$1.77 trillion[4]
• Per capita
Gini (2014)51.5[6]
HDI (2015)0.754[7]
high · 79th
CurrencyReal (R$) ([[ISO 4217|BRL]])
Time zoneUTC-2 to -5[8] (BRT[8])
• Summer (DST)
UTC-2 to -5 (BRST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+55
ISO 3166 codeBR

Brazil (officially called Federative Republic of Brazil; how to say: IPA: [bɾɐˈziw]) is a country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country. The country has about 209 million people. The capital of Brazil is Brasília. Brazil was named after brazilwood, which is a tree that once grew very well along the Brazilian coast.[9]



The first people to come to Brazil came around 9,000 B.C.[10] That group of people is often called the South American Indians and probably came from North America. Some of them were hunters and gatherers, but others were farmers.[11]

Pedro Álvares Cabral was the first European to see Brazil. He saw it in 1500. He was from Portugal and the Portuguese government claimed Brazil. Soon, explorers explored the whole coastline of Brazil and colonies were set up. In the late 1500s and early 1600s, the Dutch and the French tried to take land in Brazil. Brazilians started moving inland further than the Treaty of Tordesillas said they could. This caused some fights with the Spaniards (people from Spain) and native people in the area.[11]

In 1822, Brazil claimed to be its own country and not a part of Portugal anymore. Soon there was civil war. But the emperor Pedro II improved the economy, and in 1888, he freed the slaves. In 1889, there was a military coup, and Pedro II had to leave the country.[11]

In 1889, Brazil became a republic. It was not very democratic, because the only people who could vote were people who owned land. There were some uprisings in the 1920s because some people thought the government was unfairly helping coffee growers. Brazil joined the Allies during World War II.[11]

During the 1960s, the leader Castelo Branco made the government like a dictatorship. Since then, the country has become more democratic, but some people feel that there are still big problems in health, education, crime, poverty and social inequality.

In August 2016, then-president Dilma Rousseff was removed from office because of impeachment.[12]


Most people in Brazil speak Portuguese. Brazil is the only country in South America that speaks Portuguese.

Some people in Brazil speak German dialects. That came from German immigrants. 2% of Brazilians speak German as their first language. Yiddish is spoken by the elders of the Jewish community.

Other people in Brazil speak their ancestors' languages like Italian, Japanese, Polish, Ukrainian, French, Russian, Lithuanian, Chinese, Dutch and Korean. Spanish or "Portunhol", a mix of Portuguese and Castilian (Spanish) is spoken at some of the borders. Indigenous languages as Guarani and Aymará are the first languages of a small number of Brazilians.


Brazil has the world's largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest. It makes up 40% of the country's land area. Brazil also has other types of land, including a type of savanna called cerrado, and a dry plant region named caatinga.

The most important cities are Brasília (the capital), Belém, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, São Paulo (the biggest city) and Vitória. Other cities are at List of largest cities in Brazil.

Brazil is divided into 26 states plus the Federal District in five regions (north, south, northeast, southeast and centre-west):

The country is the fifth largest in the world by area. It is known for its many rainforests and jungles. It is next to every country in South America except Chile and Ecuador. The name Brazil comes from a tree named brazilwood.


Brazil is the largest country in South America and fifth largest in the world.[13] Its people are called Brazilians or Brasileiros (In Portuguese). The people include citizens of Portuguese or other European descent who mainly live in the South and Southeast, Africans, Native Americans, Arabs, Gypsies and people of Mixed ancestry. Brazil also has the largest Japanese community outside Japan.[14] Other East Asians follow the Japanese group.The Amazon River flows through Brazil, it is the 2nd longest river in the world (after the Nile).The current President of Brazil is Jair Messias Bolsonaro, also known as Bolsonaro.. Two major sporting events were held in Brazil recently: the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.

Related pages


  1. Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Cor ou raça
  2. "Brazil President Dilma Rousseff removed from office by Senate" . BBC. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  3. "The World Factbook" . Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Brazil" . International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
  5. "Brazil - Economic Indicators" . TRADING ECONOMICS. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  6. Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Rendimento
  7. "The Human Development Index 2016" . Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Hora Legal Brasileira" . Observatório Nacional. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-02-21.
  9. Fausto, Boris (1999). A Concise History of Brazil . Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-56526-4.
  10. Fagan, Dr. Brian; Durrani, Nadia (2015). People of the Earth: An Introduction to World Prehistory . Routledge. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-317-34682-1.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 "Brazil" . Britannica School. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  12. Catherine E. Shoichet and Euan McKirdy (September 1, 2016). "Brazil's Senate ousts Rousseff in impeachment vote" . CNN. Retrieved July 16, 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  13. "The 50 largest (area) countries in the world" . GeoHive. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  14. Veselinovic, Milena (July 24, 2013). "Mixing sushi and samba - meet the Japanese Brazilians" . CNN. Retrieved 10 December 2016.

Other websites

Categories: Brazil | Portuguese-speaking countries | 1825 establishments in South America

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