French language - simple.LinkFang.org

French language


French
français
Pronunciation[fʁɑ̃sɛ]
Native toFrance
RegionFrancophonie (French-speaking world)
(geographical distribution below)
Native speakers
76 million speakers (2012)[1]
An estimated 274 million French speakers (L1 plus L2; 2014)[1][2]
Early forms
Old French
  • Middle French
Dialects
Latin (French alphabet)
French Braille
Signed forms
Signed French
(français signé)
Official status
Official language in



Numerous international organisations
Regulated byAcadémie française (French Academy) (France)
Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Board of the French Language) (Quebec)
Language codes
ISO 639-1fr
ISO 639-2fre  (B)
fra  (T)
ISO 639-3fra
Glottologstan1290 [3]
Linguasphere51-AAA-i
     Regions where French is the main language

     Regions where it is an official language      Regions where it is a second language

     Regions where it is a minority language
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

French (French: français, pronounced "Fronce-eh") is a Romance language that was first spoken in France. It is also spoken in Belgium (Wallonia), Luxembourg, Quebec (Canada), Switzerland (Romandy) and many different countries in Africa (Francophone Africa). About 220 million people speak French as a native or a second language.[4] It has also been one of the roots of other languages such as the Haitian Creole language. Like the other Romance languages, its nouns have genders that are divided into masculine (masculin) and feminine (féminin) words.

Contents

History


In ancient times, the Celts lived in what is now France.[5] In those days, the land was called Gaul (Latin: Gallia). The Romans conquered Gallia and divided it into provinces. Because the Romans spoke Latin, the local people learned Latin and began to speak it. Their own language, Gaulish, tended to be spoken less often, although Breton is a language still spoken today in the part of France called Brittany, that came from the old Celtic language.

French pronunciation, more so than other Romance languages, became radically different from Latin. After the Roman Empire fell and Germanic peoples swarmed the countryside, Vulgar Latin was changing quickly. In medieval France it changed into two dialects or languages: langue d'oc and langue d'oïl. They both mean "language of yes", because oc was the word for "yes" in the south, and oïl meant "yes" in the north. Today, the word for yes in French is oui, pronounced like "we".

In 1635, France established the French Academy in order to standardize the French language. To this day, the academy establishes the rules for Standard French.

Langue d'oc is now called Occitan, and it is still spoken by many people in Southern France.

Letters


French uses the roman alphabet, like English. There are a few differences, because vowels can have three types of diacritics added on to them. These are the acute accent é; grave accent è and circumflex accent î. A cedilla can also be added onto a c to make ç.

Vowels

Consonants

If a word ends with a consonant, this will usually not be pronounced unless the next word starts with a vowel. However, if the word is very short or the last consonant is a c, r, l or f, this is still pronounced.

Examples


Here are some examples of French words and sentences :

Word Meaning
Oui Yes (si when used as a reply to non or negative expressions)
Non No
Bonjour Hello (formal)
Au revoir Goodbye
Salut Hi and goodbye (informal)
Merci Thank you
Merci beaucoup Thank you very much
Monsieur Sir, mister
Madame Madam, Mrs.
Homme Man
Femme Woman
Fille Girl
Garçon Boy
Poulet Chicken
Formidable Wonderful
En vacances On vacation/holiday
Eau Water
Manger To eat
Parlez-vous français? Do you speak French?
Je parle français. I speak French.
Comment allez-vous? How are you? (formal or more than one person)
Comment vas-tu? How are you? (informal)
Je t'aime. I love you.
Où sont les toilettes s'il vous plaît ? Where are the toilets, please?
Comment t'appelles-tu? What is your name?
Je m'appelle... (your name) My Name is... (your name)
Je parle l'anglais I speak English
S'il vous plaît Please (Formal)
J'ai besoin d'un taxi I need a taxi

Many French words are like English words, because English took many words from the Norman language, a dialect of French influenced by Old Norse. This is despite the fact that scholars consider English to be a Germanic language like German. Words in different languages with the same meaning which are spelled similarly are called cognates. Most English words ending with "tion" and "sion" came from the French language. See below for more examples:

Word Meaning
Non No
Théâtre Theatre
Crème Cream
Ballon Balloon
Difficile Difficult
Dragon Dragon
Rat Rat
Cinéma Cinema
Énergie Energy
Ennemi Enemy
Oncle Uncle

References


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Ethnologue: French" . Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  2. "French language is on the up, report reveals" . 6 November 2014.
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Standard French" . Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. (in French) "Les francophones dans le monde" (Francophones in the world") — Gives details from a report. Archived 2012-05-05 at WebCite
  5. "Celtic History" . Retrieved 1 August 2010.

Related pages


Other websites









Categories: Languages with ISO 639-1 code | French language | French culture




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