Taiwan - simple.LinkFang.org


Republic of China

Zhōnghuá Mínguó[a]
Anthem: "National Anthem of the Republic of China"

"National Flag Anthem"
Largest cityNew Taipei City
Official languagesMandarin[2]
Recognised regional languagesTaiwanese
Formosan languages
Official scriptsTraditional Chinese
Ethnic groups
98% Han[3]
2% Taiwanese aborigines[b]
Demonym(s)Taiwanese[4][5][6] or Chinese or both
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Tsai Ing-wen (DPP)
• Vice President
Chen Chien-jen (Independent)
• Premier
William Lai (DPP)
• President of the Legislative Yuan
Su Chia-chyuan (DPP)
• President of the Judicial Yuan
Hsu Tzong-li
• President of the Control Yuan
Chang Po-ya (NPSU)
• President of the Examination Yuan
Wu Jin-lin (KMT)
LegislatureLegislative Yuan
• Wuchang Uprising
10 October 1911
• Republic established
1 January 1912
• Constitution
25 December 1947
• Total
36,193[7] km2 (13,974 sq mi) (136th)
• Water (%)
• 2012 estimate
23,261,747[7] (50th)
• Density
642/km2 (1,662.8/sq mi) (17th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$876.035 billion[8] (19th)
• Per capita
$49,827[8] (19th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$466.832 billion[8] (26th)
• Per capita
$20,100[8] (39th)
Gini (2010)34.2[9]
HDI (2010) 0.868[c][10]
very high · 18th
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8 (not observed)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd
(CE; CE+2697) or 民國yy年m月d日
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD.tw, .台灣, .台湾[11]
  1. See Names of the Republic of China.
  2. Taiwanese aborigines are officially categorised into 14 separate ethnic groups by the Republic of China.
  3. The UN has not calculated an HDI for the ROC, which is not a member nation. The ROC government calculated its HDI for 2010 to be 0.868, which would rank it 18th among countries.

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), is a region in East Asia. It is the nationalist government of China since its settlement in 1949. It is called the Republic of China (ROC) (also called Taiwan) which is a special region comprising the island of Taiwan and nearby islands (Pescadores islands and parts of Fujian). The ROC government led by Chinese Nationalist (Kuomintang abbreviated as KMT) moved to Taiwan after the Communist army took over the capital of Beijing. Currently, the ROC government governs Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Taiwan is southeast of the China mainland, south of Japan, and north of the Philippines.

Taiwan has also been called Formosa, a Portuguese name which means "beautiful" in Portuguese.

The largest cities in Taiwan are the capital, Taipei, and the port city of Kaohsiung.

Most people living in Taiwan (sometimes called Taiwanese) are Han. Taiwan has three large Han groups. They speak different dialects of Chinese and their ancestors came from different places: the Southern Fujianese (from China's Fujian Province), the Hakka (from China), and Mainlanders (from Mainland China after 1948).

There are also Taiwanese Aborigines who have lived in Taiwan before the Han came to live there.



Status of Taiwan

There are two Chinese governments in the world: The People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). Today, in reality, the PRC government controls mainland China, and the ROC government governs Taiwan. The ROC government governed most of China mainland from 1911 to 1949, before losing control of China mainland to the PRC.

Today, people who live in Taiwan have different ideas. Although many Taiwanese think there is no freedom in China, there are still some Taiwanese who want to be united again with China. The majority of the people in Taiwan want to keep everything like it is now.

Today most countries of the world recognize the People's Republic of China as China. Even though Taiwan is not recognized by the UN as a sovereign nation,[13] most countries still have close economic and cultural relations with Taiwan. So, both sides are not making any big changes from the political status quo. This policy was expressed in a 1992 Consensus among some leaders of both sides.

In March 2004, China's government passed a law called the Anti-Secession Law. The law requires the Chinese military to invade Taiwan immediately if they declare independence.[14] The law shows China's concern over a growing move towards independence by the government of Taiwan.[15]


The island of Taiwan is about 180 kilometers off the southeastern coast of China. It is across the Taiwan Strait. It has an area of 35,883 km2 (13,855 sq mi).[7] The East China Sea is to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait directly to the south and the South China Sea to the southwest.[16]

Taiwan's highest point is Yu Shan (Jade Mountain). It is 3,952 meters high (12,966 ft). There are five other peaks over 3,500 meters.

The Penghu Islands are 50 km (31.1 mi) west of the main island. They have an area of 126.9 km2 (49.0 sq mi). More distant islands controlled by the Republic of China are the Kinmen, Wuchiu and Matsu Islands off the coast of Fujian. They have a total area of 180.5 km2 (69.7 sq mi). The Pratas Islands and Taiping Island in the South China Sea have a total area of 2.9 km2 (1.1 sq mi). They have no permanent inhabitants.[7]


The largest cities in Taiwan are:

Rank Division name Chinese name Type Population
1 New Taipei City 新北市 Special municipality 3,903,745
2 Kaohsiung City 高雄市 Special municipality 2,772,461
3 Taichung City 臺中市 (台中市) Special municipality 2,655,456
4 Taipei City 臺北市 (台北市) Special municipality 2,635,766
5 Taoyuan City 桃園市 Special municipality 2,163,728
6 Tainan City 臺南市 (台南市) Special municipality 1,874,724
7 Hsinchu City 新竹市 Provincial city 417,335
8 Keelung City 基隆市 Provincial city 381,770
9 Chiayi City 嘉義市 Provincial city 272,128
10 Changhua City 彰化市 County-controlled city 236,447
11 Pingtung City 屏東市 County-controlled city 210,275
12 Zhubei City 竹北市 County-controlled city 144,234
13 Hualien City 花蓮市 County-controlled city 108,938
14 Taitung City 臺東市 County-controlled city 108,648
15 Douliu City 斗六市 County-controlled city 107,012
16 Nantou City 南投市 County-controlled city 104,069
17 Magong 馬公市 County-controlled city 104,069


  1. "Yearbook 2004" . Government Information Office of the Republic of China. 2004. Taipei is the capital of the ROC
  2. "Taiwan (self-governing island, Asia)" . Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 1975-04-05. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  3. CIA World Factbook information about Taiwan , United States Central Intelligence Agency.
  4. "The ROC's Humanitarian Relief Program for Afghan Refugees" . Gio.gov.tw. 2001-12-11. Archived from the original on 15 December 2004. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  5. "Taiwanese health official invited to observe bird-flu conference" . Gio.gov.tw. 2005-11-11. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  6. "Demonyms – Names of Nationalities" . Geography.about.com. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Number of Villages, Neighborhoods, Households and Resident Population" . MOI Statistical Information Service. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Republic of China (Taiwan)" . International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  9. "Table 4. Percentage Share of Disposable Income by Quintile Group of Households and Income Inequality Indices" . Report on The Survey of Family Income and Expenditure . Taipei, Taiwan: Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics. 2010.
  10. http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/public/Attachment/11715383471.doc
  11. "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes" . ICANN. 25 June 2010.
  12. https://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Taiwan%27s_legislature_first_in_Asia_to_legalize_same-sex_marriage
  13. Sigrid Winkler (June 2012). "Taiwan's UN Dilemma: To Be or Not To Be" . The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  14. John J. Tkacik, Jr. "China's New "Anti-Secession Law" Escalates Tensions in the TaiwanStrait" . The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  15. Zou Keyuan, 'Governing the Taiwan Issue in Accordance with Law: An Essay on China's Anti-Secession Law', Chinese Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2005), p. 455
  16. "Chapter 1: Geography" (PDF). The Republic of China Yearbook . Government Information Office, Republic of China (Taiwan). 2011. pp. 13–25.

Related pages

Categories: Taiwan

Information as of: 24.05.2020 08:57:14 CEST

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