Tragedy of the commons - simple.LinkFang.org

Tragedy of the commons



The tragedy of the commons was an article published by Garrett Hardin in the journal Science in 1968.[1] It describes a problem where many people with their own ideas can make something they all share worse, even if no one wants to. For example, even if no one wants to pollute water because that makes it unhealthy, it can still end up like that because so many want to use the water for their own reasons, like washing and throwing away rubbish. Each person thinks that their small bit of pollution of the water is too small to affect the quality of the water, but because there are many people the total effect ends up making the water too polluted for mostly anybody to use for drinking or even washing. This may occur in slums and other overcrowded places like refugee camps.[2]

The idea was not Hardin's, but a person named William Forster Lloyd who wrote about it in 1833. In those days herders often grazed cows on common land. Lloyd pointed out that each cow added benefit to its owner but damaged the land overall for all herders by overgrazing.[3]

The tragedy of the commons is often used in modern debates on ecology. It is also a topic in game theory.

References


  1. Hardin, Garrett 1968. "The tragedy of the commons" , Science, 162, pp. 1243-1248. Also available here and here.
  2. Shiklomanov I.A. Appraisal and assessment of world water resources. Water International 25(1): 11-32 (2000)
  3. Lloyd, William Forster (1833). Two Lectures on Population .



Categories: Sociology | Metaphors | Property



Source: Wikipedia - https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy of the commons (Authors [History])    License : CC-by-sa-3.0


Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
Wikipedia specific links which do not lead to an article or category (like “Redlinks”, “links to the edit page”, “links to portals”) were removed. Every external link has an additional FontAwesome-Icon. Beside some small changes of design, media-container, maps, navigation-boxes, spoken versions and Geo-microformats were removed.


Information as of: 24.05.2020 05:11:51 CEST - Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore LinkFang.org does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Imprint & Privacy policy.